Monday, January 20, 2020

Development of Anorexia and Bulimia Essay -- Papers Research Health We

Development of Anorexia and Bulimia Anorexia and Bulimia are two very complex conditions that have been around for quite a while, however both anorexia and bulimia amongst other eating disorders are becoming more and more prevalent in today’s society. There has been extensive press and media coverage on conditions related to eating disorders. Anorexia and bulimia are two of the most common eating disorders or two of the most prevalent eating disorders around. Conditions relating to eating disorders more than fifty or so years ago were virtually unheard of, this could be due to a number of reasons. The bulimic sufferer will binge grotesque amounts of food, literally assault themselves with more food than a body can tolerate. Bulimics have no limit at all. The compulsive overeater will at last have to stop eating if only because of the pain of their distended stomach. The Anorexic sufferer deliberately aims to lose weight and sustains this weight loss. Anorexics have an intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat, even though they are severely underweight. This intense fear is powerful enough to make an individual diet to the point of starvation. An individual who suffers from anorexia is hungry, however, refuses to eat because of the fear of gaining weight. There are thought to be various potential causes of eating disorders. According to the eating disorders research unit, institute of psychiatry (2002), some of the potential causes of eating disorders may be resulted due to the disorder having genetic links, biological factors such as chemical imbalance or malfunction, psychological cause; interpersonal fact... ...titute of Psychiatry, London, from http// Accessed on April 28th 2004 Erichsen, A. (1985), Anorexia nervosa: The Broken Circle, London, Faber and Faber Fairbairn, W.R.D, (1952), Psychoanalytic Studies of personality, London, Routledge and Paul. Logue, A.W (1986), The Psychology of Eating and Drinking, New York, WH Freeman and company. MacLeod, S. (1989), The Art of Starvation, London, Virago LTD. National Eating Disorders organisation, Eating Disorders Information, United States, Accessed on 19th April 2004 Sacker, I.M. and Zimmer, M.A. (1987) Dying to be Thin, United States of America, Warner Books. Watson, C. (2004) Research Methods, from Accessed 28th April 17th, 20th, 23rd May 2004.

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Portland Cancer Center

Case 18: Leasing Decisions| | Background: The Portland Cancer Center is a not-for-profit inpatient and outpatient facility dedicated to the prevention and treatment of cancer. Working to perfect noninvasive brain surgery techniques for the past ten years, the Center is considering options to replace its current model of the Gamma Knife. Radiosurgery is often referred to as the Gamma Knife. The Gamma Knife delivers 201 separate radiation sources to treat certain brain cancers without invasive surgery. For patients with deep lesions the Gamma Knife significantly reduces the risk associate with traditional surgical procedures.Other clinical benefits to the Gamma Knife include: treating Parkinson’s, trigeminal neuralgia, arteriovenous malformations, certain types of benign tumors and small malignant lesions. The Center will open a new radiation therapy facility for several new radiosurgery procedures. Replacing the Gamma Knife at this point is viewed as a â€Å"bridge†. Thi s is because the Center’s managers think that whether the equipment is purchased or leased it will be used for no more than four years before moving to the new facility.A financial decision on whether to buy the Gamma knife or lease it is most significant to this case. Facts: * Expected physical life of the equipment is ten years * Possibility to writing a â€Å"cancellation clause† and â€Å"per-procedure clause† if leased * Possibility the Center will move to new facility sooner than expected * If equipment is to be purchased, â€Å"tax-exempt† financing could be obtained * GB Financing lease contract: * Annual payments of $675,000 * Includes service contract so equipment will be maintained in good working order (GBF will have to enter maintenece contract with manufacturer) GBF forecasts $1. 5 million residual value * If lease is not written, GBF could invest the funds in a four year term loan of similar risk that yields 8% before taxes * The Centerâ₠¬â„¢s risk is transferred back to lessor * Portland purchasing the Gamma Knife: * Invoice price is $3 million, including delivery and installation * Maintenance contract for $100,000/year * Financed by a four-year simple interest conventional bank note at 8% * May claim tax deduction for portion of loan payment * Bears all the risk of equipment * Residual value is risky. 5% probability after four years will be $500,000; 50% probability that it will be $1 million; and 25% probability that it will be $2 million. * This risk adds a 5% risk adjustment to the base discount rate used on the other lease-analysis flows Analysis: This decision is a complex one. Will it be better to use debt financing and purchase or make an investment decision to lease the piece of equipment? It is important to decipher is the lease can save money, eliminate the risk of technological obsolesce, and to share the mutual risk with the lessor.The dollar cost analysis of the lessee’s cost of owning and lea sing can be seen in Exhibit 1. A 10% discount rate (based on corporate cost of capital) was used to convert the cash flows to present values. The Lessee’s percentage cost analysis show the internal cost rate (IRR) at 6%. This shows leasing is lower than the corporate cost of capital at 10%. Looking at the lease in terms of per procedure (Exhibit 2), the annual expected 100 procedures would cost the Center $25,000 more. Furthermore, if fewer procedures were performed the per-procedure lease would be favored.It could be useful to assess the clinic’s previous volume patterns to determine the risk of this decision. Exhibit 3 shows the Lessor’s point of view to own the Gamma Knife. Using an opportunity cost rate of 8% before taxes will yield 4. 8% after taxes. The 6. 2% after tax return exceeds the 4. 8% after tax return available on alternative investments of similar risk. This also confirms the NPV of the lease investment is expected to be better off by $99,368 if it writes the lease. Recommendations: The financial advantage is for Portland Cancer Center to lease the Gamma Knife rather than purchase the equipment.The per procedure lease has a benefit to both parties, however reduces risk for the Center. It would only be advantageous is the volume of procedures was low, specifically below 100 procedures. Maintaining a state of the art healthcare facility is important and the lease will allow the Center to do so. The lessor is compensated for taking risk with tax deductions, however they will assume the risk with the technology. The NAL of $130,554 affirms that leasing creates more value than buying in this situation. The lessee’s IRR of 6% is well below the 10%, which also indicates a positive aspect to leasing versus buying.The terms of the lease should be carefully considered, especially the cancellation clause in the contract. This is important to address because of concerns with the new facility being ready before four years time. S ignificant costs could be associated with unutilized equipment so GBF could consider adding a penalty to the cancellation clause. The decision is also weighed based upon the move to the new facility. If the Center moves early keeping the equipment and moving it to the new facility is always an option. The Center should also negotiate a lower yearly lease payment.The lease answers the clinic’s requirement of a short-term commitment with the least risk associated due to a new facility that is on the way. There are also perks to a short- term lease agreement because this is not recorded on the lessee’s balance sheet. Exhibit 1: Lessee's Analysis|   |   |   |   |   |   |   | | | | | |   | Cost of Owning| | | | | |   | | | | | | |   | | | Year 0| Year 1| Year 2| Year 3| Year 4| Net purchase price| | $3,000,000 | | | |   | Maintenance cost| | 100,000 | $100,000 | $100,000 | $100,000 |   | Maintenence tax savings| | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 |   | Depreciation t ax savings| | | 0 | 0 | 0 | $0 |Residual value| | | | | | 1,125,000 | Residual value tax| |   |   |   |   | 0 | Net cash flow| | $3,100,000 | $100,000 | $100,000 | $100,000 | $1,125,000 |   | | | | | |   | PV cost of owning:| | $2,223,685 | | | |   | | | | | | |   | Cost of Leasing| | | | | |   | | | | | | |   | Lease payment| | $675,000 | $675,000 | $675,000 | $675,000 |   | Tax savings| | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 |   | Net cash flow| | $675,000 | $675,000 | $675,000 | $675,000 | $0 |   | | | | | |   | PV cost leasing:| | $2,354,239 | | | |   | | | | | | |   | Cost Comparison| | | | | |   | Net advantage to leasing (NAL)=| $130,554 | | | | |   |   | | | | | |   |Lessee's Percentage Cost Analysis| | | | |   | | | | | | |   | Leasing-versus-owning CF| | $2,425,000 | $575,000 | $575,000 | $575,000 | $1,125,000 |   | | | | | |   | Lessee's IRR=| 6%|   |   |   |   |   | Exhibit 2: Per-procedure Lease | | | | | | | | |   |   |   |    |   |   | | | Per Procedure Lease|   |   | Annual Lease|   | Procedures| Annual| Annual|   | Annual| Annual|   |   | | Lease| Net | Annual| Lease| Net| Annual| Profit| | Payment| Revenue| Profit| Payment| Revenue| Profit| Difference| 70 | $490,000 | $700,000 | $210,000 | $675,000 | $700,000 | $25,000 | 185,000 | 80 | $560,000 | $800,000 | $240,000 | $675,000 | $800,000 | $125,000 | $115,000 | 90 | $630,000 | $900,000 | $270,000 | $675,000 | $900,000 | $225,000 | $45,000 | 100 | $700,000 | $1,000,000 | $300,000 | $675,000 | $1,000,000 | $325,000 | ($25,000)| 110 | $770,000 | $1,100,000 | $330,000 | $675,000 | $1,100,000 | $425,000 | ($95,000)| 120 | $840,000 | $1,200,000 | $360,000 | $675,000 | $1,200,000 | $525,000 | ($165,000)| 130 | $910,000 | $1,300,000 | $390,000 | $675,000 | $1,300,000 | $625,000 | ($235,000)| | | | | | | | | GBF quoted per procedure lease rate of $7,000| | | | | *expected annual volume of 100 procedures| | | | | *expected net revenue per proced ure of $10,000| | | | | Exhibit 3: Lessor's Analysis|   |   |   |   |   |   |   | | | | | |   | Cost of Owning| | | | | |   | | | | | | |   | | | Year 0| Year 1| Year 2| Year 3| Year 4| Equipment cost| | $3,000,000 | | | |   |Maintenance| | (100,000)| ($100,000)| ($100,000)| ($100,000)|   | Maint tax savings| | 40,000 | 40,000 | 40,000 | 40,000 |   | Depreciation shield| | | 240,000 | 384,000 | 228,000 | $144,000 | Lease payment| | 675,000 | 675,000 | 675,000 | 675,000 |   | Tax on payment| | (270,000)| (270,000)| (270,000)| (270,000)|   | Residual value| | | | | | 1,500,000 | Residual value tax| |   |   |   |   | (396,000)| Net cash flow| | $2,655,000 | $585,000 | $729,000 | $573,000 | $1,248,000 |   | | | | | |   | NPV| $99,368 | | | | |   | IRR| 6. 20%| | | | |   | |   |   |   |   |   |   |

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Significant Themes In The Kite Runner - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 11 Words: 3399 Downloads: 7 Date added: 2019/06/10 Category Literature Essay Level High school Tags: The Kite Runner Essay Did you like this example? The Author and His Times: The author of The Kite Runner is named Khaled Hosseini. He was born in Kabul, Afghanistan on March 4 in the year 1965. Khaledrs mother worked as a teacher and his father worked as a diplomat. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Significant Themes In The Kite Runner" essay for you Create order He was the eldest of five children which was explained how he had to be a role model for his siblings. In 1976, Khaled and his loving family moved to Paris because of his fatherrs work. They moved to California in 1979 because of the soviet invasion at his original home which made a huge impact on Khaled and his family. The invasion affected Khaled and led him to keep pursuing his dreams. For example in the Encyclopedia Britannica, it says, The Kite Runner was praised for its powerful storytelling, but it was, at times, dismissed by critics for elements considered melodramatic (Pallardy and Luebering). Khaled created a story from his past experiences. He attended Santa Clara University where he majored in biology and also attended medical school in 1989. He began working on The Kite Runner before practicing medicine at the University of San Diego which changed his whole life. The novel was a huge success in his career even though he was not a professional writer. He was just an amazingly smart and talented person who wrote for fun. The novel was published in 2003 and is said to be an amazing and inspiring novel. Khaled Hosseini wrote The Kite Runner because he was inspired by his past experiences such as leaving his home. The soviet invasion was part of the reason why he wrote the novel and part of the reason why he became such an inspirational writer. In the novel, i t says, It always hurts more to have and lose than to have in the first place (Hosseini 211). Khaled Hosseini is known for his motivational quotes from his novels which were inspired by his experiences as a child. These experiences from the soviet invasion of Afghanistan impacted and made the novel what it is today because it played a huge part in why Khaled Hosseini created it. He and his family were going to move back to Kabul after being in Paris, but they didnt because it was too dangerous to move back. The danger and theme of The Kite Runner is very similar with the soviet invasion in Afghanistan because it shows how two boys fight through it. They have to suffer and pursue as Khaled Hosseini did when he had to move to California. The invasion was very dangerous because multiple soviet troops took over Kabul and multiple areas of Afghanistan politicaly and militarily. The novel was created because Khaled Hosseini had to go through lots of things with his family. Form, Structure, and Plot: The novel The Kite Runner written by Khaled Hosseini is very organized and has lots of different text structures to show dreams, flashbacks, foreshadowing, climax, turning points, revision, nightmares, and parallel structure. These different text structures are used throughout the novel to show suspense and a better understanding of the details and themes in the chapters. The novel has 25 chapters with an foreword and afterword to explain why and how the author wrote The Kite Runner. This structure and organization of the text impacts the reader because it tells them details before, after, and during the story. It also shows how events are resolved by cause and effect. In the novel, dreams are established throughout the text to show how hope is expressed. The different characters have dreams to hope for a better future ahead. In chapter eight, its says, I thought about Hassanrs dream, the one about us swimming in the lake. There is no monster, hed said, just water. Except hed been wr ong about that. There was a monster in the lake. It had grabbed Hassan by the ankles, dragged him to the murky bottom. I was that monster (Hosseini 86). The dream that Amir has shows the reader what the character is thinking about. He realizes he has been dragging his friend down instead of being a good friend. This text structure shows the reader clues and a better understanding of the characters. Hosseini uses flashbacks to show the reader what is happening outside the climax of the novel. The novel begins in 2001 and ends in 2002 which shows how the narrator grows up. He talks about his past and his experiences he has been through which tells the reader who the character is. Amir begins to tell his childhood in the beginning of the novel and then he grows into a man at the end. He says, I became what I am today at the age of twelve, on a frigid overcast day in the winter of 1975 (Hosseini 1). This is foreshadowing because Amir is explaining how his past brought him to who he is today. The chapter also starts out with December 2001 because it tells the reader a date in which Amir starts telling his story. Flashbacks and foreshadowing come into play in the novel because it hints the reader what will be coming next and how the reader was shaped throughout it. In the middle of the story is where all the suspense and drama is. The suspense in the story shapes the novel and shows the strong organization it has from beginning to end. This is called the climax which is in different novels to express drama. The climax of the novel is where the most action is or where there is mystery and suspense. In The Kite Runner, Amir finds out Sohrab, his half nephew, was taken by the Taliban. The suspense and mystery to where he went is the climax of the story. It also shows how Sohrab has been sexualy abused by the taliban when Amir rescued him. This part of the story tells the reader the evil part of the story and it is the biggest problem in the novel. In the novel it says, Sohrab looked down at his feet, but kept stealing shy, furtive glances at me. The manrs hand slid up and down the boyrs belly (Hosseini 391). The way Assef touches Sohrab shows how he abuses the boy in an evil way. The climax of the story is where the evil, mystery, and suspense is. The author also uses techniques of text structure such as parallel structure. He uses parallel structure to show the repetition of events that are very similar in the story. This allows the text to come together very efficiently and it makes the novel very organized. Parallel structure is used in parts of the novel such as kite running in two different parts of the story. In the beginning of the novel, Hassan runs the kite for Amir because he was a very good kite runner and it showed his love for his friend. It also showed how much Hassan cared for Amir. After Hassan brought the kite back to Amir, he said, For you a thousand times over(Hosseini 71). This quote is also repeated at the end of the novel when Sohrab is still getting used to living in San Francisco with Amir and his wife. Amir tells him all about his father, Hassan, and how he used to fly kites. When Amir says the same exact quote to Sohrab, the reader gets reassured that everything will be alright. It shows how Sohrab will be loved by Amir and he will protect him for the rest of his life. Parallel structure is also shown in two other parts of the novel when Assef is threatened by getting shot in the eye with a slingshot. At the beginning of the novel, Amir was getting pushed around by Assef and his evil friends. Hassan protected him by threatening him with a slingshot. In the novel, it said, Hassan held the slingshot pointed directly at Assefrs face. His hand trembled with the strain of the elastic band and beads of sweat had erupted on his brow (Hosseini 42). The fact that Hassan had a slingshot pointed at Assefrs face shows his bravery and how much he cares for Amir. This also happened when Sohrab was protecting Amir from getting beat up by the older Assef who worked for the Taliban. It says, The slingshot made a thwiiiiit sound when Sohrab released the cup. Then Assef was screaming (Hosseini 291). Even though Sohrab knew what Assef would do to him if he got caught, he still protected Amir. The parrallel structure shows the reader how much the two characters are alike and how much bravery they show. Turning points are also shown in the novel such as when Hassan and Amirrs relationship come to an end. This affects the whole story because Amir feels guilty for lying and blaming Hassan for the things he has been doing. The author creates turning points in the story to show the reader what it was like before and after Hassan and Amir had a relationship. Things began to change when Hassan left and Amir began to feel different throughout the s tory. Hassan had a great impact on Amir and he didnt even know it. Point of view: The Kite Runner is written in first person point of view which is referred to as I. This is important to the technique and writing of the text because it tells the reader what their thoughts are about the person. It also tells you specific details to what people look, sound, and act like. It is almost as you are looking through the main characters eyes and picturing what he is seeing. The novel is written in a reminiscence and recent perspective which is recent and past tense. The novel starts out with the year December 2001 to show that he is reminiscing about his past with his best friend that he no longer has. The novel changes to a recent perspective when Amir is now older and begins to rescue Sohrab. Since the novel is in first person point of view, the main character, Amir is the protagonist. He is a protagonist because it is his story and he is talking about his own childhood and events he had to go through. He went through mistakes of his own such as being selfish and not app reciating what he has. Amir is not an observer because the novel was about him and how his life was created. An observer only observes what is happening to someone else going through hardships. The point of view shifts to another person in the novel named Rahim Khan. It says, Then Rahim Khan sipped some more tea. Rested his head against the wall and spoke (Hosseini 202). The shift from the two narrarators in the story impacts the reader because it shows both of their emotions and perspectives. The reader learnes more about Hassan and his past when Rahim Khan tells his story. The authorrs purpose of switching narrarators is to explain two different point of views of Hassan. It tells the reader what Hassanrs family was like before he died and also how happy he was. Switching narrarators between Amir and Rahim impacts the entire novel because it shows what Hassan was like after leaving Amir and their friendship. Different point of views in novels can impact the reader because it can give the reader a better understanding of characters such as Hassan. Since Amir and Hassan did not keep in touch, Rahim tells us what he was like by his perspective and eyes. Point of view can show the reader what their feelings are and what emotions they have when they are thinking. First person point of view affects the reader because it shows us what happens through the c haracterrs eyes and how different they are. It also shows the reader the differences between Rahim Khan and Amir by the way they are thinking and reacting to different situations. Rahim is very close to Hassan and respects him while Amir did not respect him until he was gone. Character: Amir is a main character in the novel that is a dynamic and has a rounded personality. The dynamic character that he is means that he changes over time. He changes from a disrespectful young boy to a brave older man. For example, Amir always treated Hassan very poorly even thought they had a very close relationship. It was always Amir who became angry of Hassan because he was not getting any attention from his father. He was always treating Hassan as a person who was a different culture than him and he always thought Hassan was lower than him. For example Amir began to resent Hassan and said, Your a coward! (Hosseini 92). Amir was changing from being into a close relationship with Hassan, to being full of hatred. An example of a static character is Hassan because he hasnt changed as a person throughout the story no matter how much he has gone through. Hassan was just an innocent boy in the beginning of the story. He never changed from being innocent and respectful when growing up int o a man. Hassan is a person who is caring, respectful, appreciative, and brave as a boy and as a grown up. He cares for his friend Amir even when they dont agree on certain things and also he is very respectful when Baba is talking to him. Even though he isnt treated the same as Amir and his family, he still is very kind and respects his superiors. For example in the novel, it says, Hassan did get up, but he just stood there, looking dazed like a man dragged into the ocean by a riptide when, just a moment ago, he was enjoying a nice stroll on the beach (Hosseini 92). After Amir was yelling at Hassan to hit him with pomagranets, Hassan just stood there and didnt do anything to Amir. He stood there while getting pelted and splattered and didnt react in any harm to Amir. Hassan is respectful and knows doing harm to anyone is not effective. He is also very brave at times when he is standing up for Amir. He stood up for Amir when Assef was bullying them in the alley. Hassan threatened to hit him with his slingshot if he didnt stop messing with Amir. This shows his bravery because Assef is very powerful and could do anything to Hassan at any time in the future. The characters of the novel are very believable because the reader can understand how they are feeling. It gives the reader a sensation of what the characters are going through. The different characters in The Kite Runner are revealed in parts such as brave, respectful, and genuine. In other parts they are revealed as cowardly, fearful, and horrific. The complex characters of the novel are Amir and Hassan because the reader has a better understanding of their personalities. They are portrayed differently in parts of the novel which makes the reader understand who they truly are. There are thirteen characters in the novel that the reader can understand how they act and what their personalities are. All of the characters have things in similar because they are going through the same situations in the war. They are also very different because they grew up differently and they have contrasting feelings and emotions. The protagonist is Amir because the reader sees what he is feeling through his perspective and it shows his feelings throughout the novel. We see him change as a character from the beginning to the end of the story. The role of minor characters such as Baba, Ali, and Soraya are there to cause tension in the main characters. Amirrs father causes him to struggle when trying to impress him. That is why Amir is always wanting to impress his father by leaving Hassan behind. The minor characters affect the main characters emotions and reactions. One character of the novel is Amir who is a younger boy in the beginning of the story but also grows up into a man at the end of the story. He is described as a sensitive, intelligent, and jealous person in parts of the story. Amirrs appearance in not expressed in the novel but he is portrayed as a privileged, Pashtun boy who comes from a well-known family. Amirrs function in the novel is being the main character and also the novel is shown by his own eyes and perspective. His name is significant in the novel because it is said multiple times when he was a boy and an older man. It is a common arabic name that describes what culture he is. In the novel, it says, I actually aspired to cowardice, because the alternative, the real reason I was running, was that Assef was right: Nothing was free in this world. Maybe Hassan was the price I had to pay, the lamb I had to slay, to win Baba. (Hosseini 68). Amirrs jealousy takes over his character and emotions which is why he ended his brotherly relationship with Hassan. Another character is Hassan in the novel. The novel does not describe his age in the book but he is a younger boy in the beginning and an older man in the middle of the story. He is very brave, respectful, and loyal. His appearance in the beginning of the story is that he has a cleft lip that was fixed moments after we learned abo ut him. He is a little boy with a father named Ali who takes care of him. They both live in a hut next to Amirrs house and they work as servants for Baba. Hassan is a very caring and innocent boy who never breaks down the whole story. His character is significant because he forms a brotherly bond with the main character which causes conflict because of their different cultures. Hassanrs name is significant because the reader remembers it the whole story. Amir never forgets his friendrs name and their bond. In the novel, it says, Hassan never denied me anything (Hosseini 4). Hassan is a character who never said no to Amir or Baba. He always followed them and did whatever they said. He always thought of them superiors because of their culture. Hassan was treated unfairly because he was a different culture than Baba and Amir but he never gave up hope in the novel. Another main character in the novel is Baba. The novel never describes his age because he grows older throughout the story. He is very well-known, proud, and determined as Amir describes him in the novel. The novel never describes his outer appearance but we know that he is an adult which is Amirrs father and also Hassanrs father as the reader finds out at the end. Baba is very independent but also distant from Amir is some parts which explains why Amirrs jealousy takes over him. Babars function in the novel is Amirrs father but he creates conflict because he creates jealousy when Amir tries to impress him. This created tension between Hassan and Amir. Babars name is significant to the story because he is always in Amirrs head when he is trying to impress him. Baba never gives up trying to care for Amir which shows how proud he is of his son. It says, You steal his wifes right to a husband, rob his children of a father. When you tell a lie, you steal someones right to the truth. When you cheat, you steal the right to fairness. Do you see? (Hosseini 17). Baba talks to Amir about life problems and that there is only one sin which is theft. He is very wise and also wants Amir to be confident and make moral decisions in the future. Another character is Assef which doesnt describe his age in the future. He is dangerous, rude, and cowardly but it doesnt describe his appearance in the novel. Assef is one that is feared and very manipulative to Amir and Hassan. The function of his character is to bring the climax and conflict to the story and also his name is significant because the two boys will always remember him. It says, Ill tell you why, Hazara. Because to him, youre nothing but an ugly pet (Hosseini 55). Assef makes fun of Hassan just because he is Hazara which is very unfair and cruel. He treats Hassan as a pet with no rights.

Friday, December 27, 2019

Term Paper About Religion and Democracy

A legitimate government is crucial to the prosperity of a country and its people. A government that is acceptable to everybody is a product of a democratic process. Democracy is a system of governance where electing and replacing of an incumbent government is done through free and fair elections, (Adams Henry, 2008:2-5.)In a democratic system the government and the citizenry enters a social contract. The government is given the mandate by the electorate, to implement the social contract for the fixed period of time, failure to which it is kicked out through an election. Besides elections a democratic system displays the following features: Recurrent free and fair elections,   Ã‚  Human rights are respected, political party pluralism exists, and above all civil society is tolerated (Ibid: 15-17). It is impossible for the state to remain religious at the same time democratic. In every jurisdiction there are always people of different religious orientation. They may be affiliated to d ominant or minority religions, therefore it is prudent for every state to remain secular in order to uphold the rights of every religion. Depending on the location of the state there’s always a dominant religion and minority religion. A dichotomy between governance and religion   should be there, to avoid the Un- necessary conflicts that arise due to different ideologies of different religions, (Anderson, John ,2006:78-85).In a secular state religion play a very instrumental role in nurturing democracy, by giving direction to the government where it has faulted. The cause of the reformation of the church in 1450-1550 A.D was due to intolerance of individual views and liberties. The modern religions have not transformed either, they are still conservative by opposing new ideas . The principle of liberalism is a key facet of a democratic state; therefore any state that claims to be democratic must uphold this principle. It becomes difficult for such a state to uphold the same principle if it maintains the duality of religion and democracy because most of religions, do not allow people to behave as they wish as long as they don’t enfranchise on the rights of others. The Duality Of Democracy And Religion In Middle East The Middle East comprises countries like Iraq, Iran Saud Arabia and many others. My discussion will be limited to Iran by examining the implications or possibility of maintaining this double characteristic. In situations where extreme fundamental principles of a religion like Islam are the basis of governance, it is difficult to nurture the spirit of democracy. Sharia law is very intricate hence difficult for liberal ideas of a modern government to penetrate. Majority of the states in Middle East are governed by extreme Islamic fundamentalism which is opposed to western liberal ideas, (Sayed ,Khatab 2007:107-112 )The system of governance in Iran   is based on extreme Islamic fundamentalism where the Koran is the only document recognised when interpreting social political and economic issues. It is illegal to refer to any other book or document. Iran like many other states it is a republic but it is a special republic, where the highest office is that of a supreme leader. The second most powerful office to the supreme leader is the presidency. The qualification of the supreme leader is that he must have had intense training in Islamic law and must be someone of justice. The supreme leader is the appointing authority of the powerful offices like the commander of the armed forces, director of communication, and the chief judges who decides the bills that becomes the law and determines who runs for presidency and parliament. What the supreme leader pronounces becomes the law because according to the Koran the Muslims are not supposed to challenge what their leader says, (ibid: 123-125). Implications of Religion to Democracy in Iran Historically the supreme leaders have, evaded elections yet they are vested with appointing authority. Therefore his leadership is not legitimate because people are not given the opportunity to elect an individual whom they want. Therefore there’s, a tendency of a supreme leader to impose his leadership to be accepted. In a democratic state, the culture of regular and free elections of the parliamentarians, and the executive is practised. Although regular elections has been conducted in Iran, it has not been free and fair because the supreme leader, single headedly appoints the high court judges who decides who to run for presidency or parliament therefore the outcome of the elections can easily be predetermined by the supreme leader. Besides exclusive power to appointment the supreme leader has got no proper checks and measures because his word is law and must be respected by the parliament. Therefore the supreme leader can misinterpret the law to favour his personal interests. In a country like Iran where the Koran is the basis of the society there’s a threat of discrimination. The Koran discriminates against women and the minority religions. The rights of people who subscribe to minority religions are always abused they intimidated and denied freedom of expression. (Charles   ,E 2001:200-205 ) In order to successfully to incorporate the aspect of religion in democracy the Islamic region must be modified in away to suit democracy. Islamic subgroups like Islamic brotherhood which incorporates secularism in Islamic culture, is friendly to democracy hence should be encouraged. Work cited Anderson, John Religion Democracy and democratisation Rutledge (2006) Sayed, Khatab Democracy in Islam   Rutledge (2007) Charles, E   Between the state and Islam Cambridge university press(2001) Adams, Henry Democracy :An American Novel Cosmo (2008)

Thursday, December 19, 2019

The Revolution The Cause Of The American Revolution

The American Revolution was the turning point for the colonies that made up the United States today. It was the war that freed the colonists from British control. But what actually caused the American Revolution? Well, there’s no simple answer to that question. In fact, most of the causes acted as if they were dominoes. These events can be categorized in four periods of time or setting. These groups are, Salutary neglect, Mercantilism, Boston, and Unity of protests. Salutary neglect was the idea for the British to let the colonies prosper without any restricting control on the colonists. Mercantilism was the idea that the colonies were there to financially help the British who were in debt from a previous war with the French. The city of†¦show more content†¦The British had many different motives behind this law. One of the motives was to avoid conflicts between the Native Americans and Colonists, the British even declared the Proclamation Line of 1763 was â€Å"re spect for Indian rights†- (Pole 2). However, the British were more concerned with saving money by avoiding unnecessary conflicts, more than the rights of the Native Americans. Another motive for the Proclamation Line of 1763 was to prevent Colonists from moving west into the country because it was easier for the British to control the Colonies if all of the Colonists were settled on the East Coast. Financially and Geographically, the Proclamation Line of 1763 made sense for the British, however, the Colonists were very offended by this law. (Kelly 2). This was the first time the Colonists were outraged by a restrictive law. Unfortunately for the Colonists, it would be far from the last time. The concept of Mercantilism is when a mother country uses their colonies for financial or any other type of support. This ideal was hated by the Colonists and before the enormous debt obtained by the British, it became the â€Å"..British idea of how a colony should be governed†- ( Wright 80). The British decided to put more restrictive laws on the colonies, the first four enacted were the Sugar Act, the Currency Act, the Quartering Act, and the Stamp Act. The Sugar Act was a raised tax on sugar imported from the West Indies. (Kelly 2). This was the first attempt byShow MoreRelatedCauses Of The American Revolution1202 Words   |  5 PagesThroughout history many revolutions took place, ranging from the unremarkable to a truly memorable, as the French revolution, the American Revolution, and the Bolshevik Revolution, but American revolution took place in 1775-1783. The revolution was different from other revolution because of growing tensions between residents of Great Britain’s 13 North American colonies and the colonial government because American revolution was not like the others. This revolution was not like the others becauseRead MoreCauses Of The American Revolution738 Words   |  3 Pagesas the American Revolution, or the Revolutionary War. T he American Revolution was a war between the colonists of America and Great Britain and they were fighting over the independence of America from Britain. This war lasted until 1781, when the British surrendered to the Americans, As a result, America is a fully independent country and it has stayed that way since that day. There were many causes of the war, The Stamp Act, the Boston Tea Party, and Lexington and Concord. The first cause of theRead MoreCauses Of The American Revolution880 Words   |  4 Pages The American Revolution is the most important time in all of American history. This brought the birth of a new country and the treasured constitution. In the beginning, colonists were proud to be British. In the years to come, there were small occurrences that bothered the colonists and led to the Revolution. 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Despite all the taxes being placed on the Americans and the thingsRead MoreCauses of the American Revolution953 Words   |  4 PagesEmily Thou Mr. G./ Period 1 September 14, 2012 Causes of the American Revolution The American Revolution began in 1755 as an open conflict between the thirteen colonies and Great Britain. The Treaty of Paris had ended that war in 1783, giving the colonies their own independence. There are many factors contributing to the start of the Revolution, but the war began as the way The Great Britain treated the colonies versus the way the colonies felt they should be treated. For example, the FrenchRead MoreCauses Of The American Revolution886 Words   |  4 PagesThe American Revolution began on April 19, 1775. It was the war between Great Britain and its colonies located in the New World. The colonists, as many historians put it, were like children rebelling against the motherland; however, they had many valid reasons for this revolt, including their desire for freedom and independence. My World History textbook says freedom was falsely promised when the colonists had settled (Krull 868). The more direct causes of this widely known rebellion include taxesRead MoreCaus es Of The American Revolution1344 Words   |  6 PagesAmerican Revolution The causes of the American Revolution go back to the beginning of salutary neglect and the French and Indian War, as well as changes in the thinking of society. The effects of these events and other factors led to pressure within the colonies, ultimately resulting in rebellion. There were five factors to the nature of the American Revolution: The Environment, The Enlightenment, Self-Government, Economic Independence and Colonial Unity. The first factor that led to the AmericanRead MoreCauses Of The American Revolution813 Words   |  4 PagesCauses Before the American Revolution, any imports from England from us had to come in ships owned by the British. Also, we could only sell tobacco and sugar to England. The British took French territory in Canada, east of the Mississippi River, and Spanish Florida which led to the American Revolution. Due to the war, Britain went in debt so, the British government placed taxes on goods so they could make more money. But that’s not all that led to the American Revolution, both the us and the FrenchRead MoreThe Causes Of The American Revolution4319 Words   |  18 PagesThe American Revolution was a conflict between Great Britain and its colonies. During the middle of the third quarter of the eighteenth century, Britain was the greatest of the European powers. The British would leave their American colonies alone in the early 1760s. It was a policy of salutary neglect. The colonists became differentiated from the people of England and created their own government because of salutary neglect. The French and Indian War (the Seven Year’s War) changed everythingRead MoreCauses Of The American Revolution1644 Words   |  7 PagesThe American revolution was a period in time when tensions began to rise between the people of Great Britain s 13 North American colonies and the colonial government. It took the colonists nearly a decade before they had had enough of the british. The British had tried to increase taxes. With the taxes increasing it caused the colonists to become very upset with the British. Causing them to meet the Britishes taxing by a heated protest about wanting the same rights as other British citizens. It

Tuesday, December 10, 2019

Effective Planning Strategic Management

Question: Discuss about the Effective Planning for Strategic Management. Answer: Introduction Strategic management includes an effective planning, the execution of it and the ultimate process of monitoring the constant improvements and progress of a particular organisation. Volkswagen, a renowned company of automobile manufacturing industry has made it positive step in Malaysia in last decade. The management of Volkswagen encountered serious challenges from its competitor companies like Honda, Audi and Toyota at initial stage. However, the expert engaged in this company help to combat certain issues with effective strategy and Volkswagen enjoys minimum 64% market share in the automobile industry of Malaysia ( 2016). Although Volkswagen is German company, however, the management has decided to open factories in Malaysia and other region of South-east Asia only because of business expansion. Mission, vision and objective statements The fundamental mission Volkswagen is to offer safe, eco-friendly and attractive vehicles that can compete with other existing companies in the automobile industry of Malaysia. The vision of Volkswagen is to hold the position of innovative automobile manufacturer, which is capable enough to offer best quality. Another important vision of this company is to power the regenerative electricity for the electric motors that are used by existing vehicles (Kumaraswamy et al. 2012). The objective statement of Volkswagen is to ensure the constant profitable growth and to expand the product and brand portfolio for future success of the company. The mission, vision and objective statements help Volkswagen to decide the future strategies. Environmental analysis PESTEL analysis is appropriate to understand the environment and the major drivers of changing the environment of automobile industry in Malaysia. Political New regulations of Malaysian government have direct impact on the business process of Volkswagen. Instability of the Malaysian government also influences the company. Economical The predictions of GDP forecast suggest 17% rapid growth in this continuing year (Pauwels et al. 2012). The unemployment rate of Malaysia affects the business of Volkswagen. Interest rates for importing cars are increasing day by day and it influences the strategy of Volkswagen. Inflation rate has grown from 12% to 14.7% since few months. The sudden increment of fuel price also affects the business of Volkswagen. Social The purchasing capacity of the inhabitants of Malaysia has been enhanced. Customer loyalty towards the innovative product of Volkswagen helps to develop the strategy for capturing better position in the automobile industry of Malaysia (Lasserre 2012). The constant growing population of Malaysia also has a huge impact on the business of Volkswagen. Technological Although the management of Volkswagen has incorporated effective technologies in the manufactured vehicles, still this particular company lacks behind from the other competitor companies. Environmental Volkswagen has revealed a serious level of concern for the various environmental issues that are rapidly growing in Malaysia. The higher officials of Volkswagen are committed to manufacture environment friendly and safe vehicles for the customers (Wieland and Marcus Wallenburg 2012). Legal Government protection helps Volkswagen to continue its business in Malaysia in effective and adequate manner. The revised new tariffs can influence the manufactured products of Volkswagen. Table 1: PESTEL analysis (Source: Ritala 2012) PESTEL analysis is an effective and useful business tool to understand in critical manner the basic potentiality of specific business. The results of PESTEL analysis can help the management of Volkswagen to collect benefits and make strategies accordingly. The concerned expert of Volkswagen can monitor, evaluate and assess each factor, which is very much significant for curving out success in future for this particular company. Capability analysis According to Ferrell and Hartline (2012) capability analysis in the context of the value chain includes the way of prosper and survival in a particular industry. Value chain analysis of Volkswagen suggests that this company is potential enough to meet the two key criteria of any organisation, such as to satisfy the customers and survive the competition. In Malaysian automobile manufacturing industry is very much competitive for Volkswagen because of the presence of Honda, Audi and Toyota. The value chain analysis involves the entire competitive advantages, which are derived from the basic differences in between the cost to make customer value and the core value it offers to the customers. In order to detect every assigned activity in a proper systematic manner, value chain analysis will be apt for generating the ultimate advantages in differentiation and costs. Lee (2013) has mentioned that these aspects play an important role in todays competitive business world. Therefore, the value chain analysis will not only concentrate on low costs, however, tries to provide developed vehicles in terms of design, quality, technology and innovation. The manufactured vehicles of Volkswagen have great attributes, which can perform as unique value to the customers in order to appreciate the willingness of payment with premium price. Value chain is appropriate capability analysis as it provides an established set of calculation to evaluate and assess the effectiveness of an organisation, which is capable enough to satisfy various requirements. The controlled chart of Volkswagen has reflected the fact that this company holds at least 39% market share in the automobile manufacturing in dustry of Malaysia (refer to Appendix 1). The vehicles of Volkswagen are essential rather than some effective steps within the value chain process. The value chain analysis of Volkswagen includes the internal cost analysis, internal differentiation evaluation and the monitoring procedures of vehicle linkage. This kind of analysis is not so much exclusive in collaborative manner (Kapferer 2012). However, it clearly determines the area of concentration in internal operations level in order to consider the competitive situation in the concerned industry. For identifying the value-creating way, Volkswagen de-emphasizes the core functional structure. Proposed strategy Strengths Weaknesses The major strength of Volkswagen is its global presence. Volkswagen enjoys a string and matured brand portfolio. Volkswagen has a strong existence in Malaysia. The ultimate performance of this company is gradually increasing (Ramamurti 2012). The primary weakness of Volkswagen is its not manufacturing passenger vehicles. The manufactured vehicles of Volkswagen are not environment friendly. Opportunities Threats The great opportunity of Volkswagen is its positive attitude towards manufacturing green vehicles in order to save the environment of Malaysia from pollution. The basic growth by acquisition is another potential opportunities of Volkswagen. Completely new standards of emission are an effective threat of Volkswagen in the automobile manufacturing industry of Malaysia. The constant increments in the prices of raw materials are significant threat for Volkswagen. The competitor companies manufacture more technologically advanced cars than Volkswagen. Table 2: SWOT analysis (Source: Loureiro et al. 2012) From the abovementioned SWOT analysis, the management of Volkswagens is able to understand the existing strengths and weaknesses of the company that can be improved. However, from the detected possible threats and opportunities, Volkswagen should incorporate new strategies to combat with these issues. Volkswagen has adopted effective strategies, such as battery technology strategy for promoting the autonomous and digitisation driving process ( 2016). In order to combine the strengths and weaknesses (SW), opportunities and threats (OT) of Volkswagen, TOWS matrix would be perfect. Opportunities Threats The changing preferences of customers are the great opportunity for Volkswagen. Malaysian government support this company. The market of automobile industry is rapidly growing in Malaysia. Constant increment of costs and maintenance of manufactured products. New laws regarding labour are potential threat for Volkswagen. The automobile manufacturing market in Malaysia is unknown for Volkswagen (David and David 2016). Strengths Weaknesses The durability, reliability and the quality of the cars of Volkswagen is major strength. The management philosophy is very much strong. Worker productivity is increasing is gradual manner. Volkswagen lacks the capital for business expansion. Volkswagen fails to retain its specialised workers in the competitive automobile market in Malaysia. Table 3: TOWS matrix (Source: Chesbrough et al. 2014) After analysing and evaluating the strength, weakness, opportunities and threats, the management of Volkswagen has adopted few effective strategies such as Together- strategy 2025. This particular strategy focuses on changing the basic business after tapping effective new revenue streams. As opined by Hill et al. (2014) the adopted strategies are taken with proper following of Porters generic strategies, which clearly suggests the competition level of business in a particular market. Porters generic strategies involve the significant sources of competitive advantage, which involves cost leadership, focus, differentiation leadership and focus. Volkswagen even develops the strategies to make positive decision power as shareholders. These proposed strategies should counterbalance the core flaws in between the reduction cost and flexibility. Strategy evaluation In order to evaluate the adopted strategies of Volkswagen SAF evaluation would be perfect for proposed strategies. Suitability Both the proposed strategies are potential enough to address the major opportunities and threats encountered by Volkswagen. Acceptability The proposed strategies fail to meet the expectation of stakeholders. However, the level of risks after incorporating these strategies is high within the organisation. There is a very low possibility of acceptance of stakeholders of these strategies. After adopting the proposed strategies, Volkswagen can expect its adequate sales revenue from the automobile industry of Malaysia. Feasibility The proposed strategy is very much applicable to make it in practice. The proposed strategies require more than finance budget than the discussion in general meeting of Volkswagen. The expert professionals are needed in order to incorporate the above-mentioned strategies. Table 4: SAF evaluation (Source: Chesbrough et al. 2014) Conclusion Volkswagen is famous automobile manufacturing company in Malaysia. However, in present times, this company faces serious level of competition from its competitor companies like Audi, Honda and Toyota. Therefore, the higher management of Volkswagen has decided to make some effective strategies in order to solve the issues regarding the competitiveness of automobile industry. Although the expert professionals of Volkswagen have proposed adequate strategies in order to capture at least 67% automobile market by the end of this present year, still there are some recommendations that can help Volkswagen to develop its current position and enjoy the highest position in the automobile manufacturing industry of Malaysia. Recommendations: 1. Volkswagen should incorporate completely new innovative equipments for the manufactured vehicles. 2. Volkswagen should share modules in between segments and VW brands. 3. This company should offer new range of vehicles in Malaysian market. 4. Volkswagen should focus on manufacturing more technologically advanced vehicles rather than its competitor companies like Toyota, Honda and Audi. 5. Volkswagen should create new way of more earning of sales revenue after the end of the annual year. References Chesbrough, H., Vanhaverbeke, W. and West, J. eds., 2014.New frontiers in open innovation. OUP Oxford. David, F. and David, F.R., 2016. Strategic Management: A Competitive Advantage Approach, Concepts and Cases. Ferrell, O.C. and Hartline, M., 2012.Marketing strategy, text and cases. Nelson Education. Hill, C.W., Jones, G.R. and Schilling, M.A., 2014.Strategic management: theory: an integrated approach. Cengage Learning. Kapferer, J.N., 2012.The new strategic brand management: Advanced insights and strategic thinking. Kogan page publishers. Kumaraswamy, A., Mudambi, R., Saranga, H. and Tripathy, A., 2012. Catch-up strategies in the Indian auto components industry: Domestic firms responses to market liberalization.Journal of International Business Studies,43(4), pp.368-395. Lasserre, P., 2012.Global strategic management. Palgrave Macmillan. Lee, K.H., 2013. Integrating carbon footprint into supply chain management: the case of Hyundai Motor Company (HMC) in the automobile industry.Journal of Cleaner Production,19(11), pp.1216-1223. Loureiro, S.M., Sardinha, I.M.D. and Reijnders, L., 2012. The effect of corporate social responsibility on consumer satisfaction and perceived value: the case of the automobile industry sector in Portugal.Journal of cleaner production,37, pp.172-178. Pauwels, K., Silva-Risso, J., Srinivasan, S. and Hanssens, D.M., 2014. New products, sales promotions, and firm value: The case of the automobile industry.Journal of marketing,68(4), pp.142-156. Ramamurti, R., 2012. What is really different about emerging market multinationals?.Global Strategy Journal,2(1), pp.41-47. Ritala, P., 2012. Coopetition strategywhen is it successful? Empirical evidence on innovation and market performance.British Journal of Management,23(3), pp.307-324. (2016) News Available at [Accessed on Aug 10, 2016] Wieland, A. and Marcus Wallenburg, C., 2012. Dealing with supply chain risks: Linking risk management practices and strategies to performance.International Journal of Physical Distribution Logistics Management,42(10), pp.887-905.

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

How To Write A Persuasive Essay Essay Example

How To Write A Persuasive Essay Paper A persuasive essay is a type of paper that helps the writer assure his audience about some idea. The writer takes one defensible position and makes the reader believe him. This is the common task in the school or college classes. You may also need to write a persuasive paper to convince your boss or colleagues to believe in something. In any situation, you should know how to write persuasive essay successfully and sound confident. Some useful tips for writing your essay persuasively Do some research; before you intend to persuade the audience, become self-confident in your ideas; surely, you need to do some preparation for writing. Dont be in a hurry; you should spend enough time to write your essay successfully; research to find all information you need to know. Study your audience; it is extremely important to decide before writing what readers you are going to appeal to. You aim to convince them, thus you should identify which facts and statements will be persuasive for your audience. It is impossible to assure all the people; you should focus on the specific group. For example, before writing about the utility of high education, decide whether you are appealing to the young people, their parents or even their teachers. Choose a defensible position; not surprisingly, the topic youve chosen may have different sides and questions inside. State only those arguments that you can prove. Your task is to take a strong position and expand only one stated opinion in your essay. Let your readers understand your stance and dont confuse them by touching contrary views. Present your thesis statements; as we mentioned above, your audience should realize your point of view concerning the topic. For that reason, you are supposed to state the thesis at the beginning of your essay. It should be written in the understandable language and give the reader a clear picture what you are arguing about. Share your testimony; think what pieces of evidence created your opinion and presented these proofs to your audience. Generate your ideas and try to show them in the most beneficial way; be accurate and unshakable. Write your paper consecutively, logically and smoothly; you aim to make people think you are specialist that is completely aware of his topic. Some more hints Give facts to prove your opinion; do not rely only on your own opinion; your thoughts are interesting for the reader, but giving facts, you make him believe in your irrefutability. Try to be objective and present real facts and events that will help prove your view. Use the reliable sources that will let you choose the appropriate information for your paper. Is it clear how to write the persuasive essay? Use the persuasion techniques; persuasion is a kind of craft you should learn. There are various useful skills and knacks that will help you become a successful writer. Among them, we can distinguish repetition, when you keep echoing over what you say several times. Use quotations to help the reader think you are not the only person that sticks to stated opinion. Actually, it will sound like appealing ‘dont stay alone, join us. Use rhetorical devices to sound more convincingly. Use emotional language; psychologists proved, that people are more compliant when someone induces their emotions. They become more complaisant and subconsciously decided to agree. Make them feel sorry for the presenting situation and show how badly it is and how immediately we need to find the solution. Choose the topic that is complicated and interesting for everyone in your audience. Stimulate your audience to act; make your reader sense that they are obliged to do something to improve the situation. Make them think about the problem even after theyve read your paper. Confute the opposite opinions. Operate only with those arguments that are strong enough to stand against the opposite points of view; your evidence should refute the contradicting opinions. Step by step guide for writing How to write the persuasive essay? Like any other type of the composition, the persuasive essay has its definite structure. Build the essay in the following way: the introductory paragraph, the body paragraphs, and the conclusion. 1 The introduction The first paragraph of your paper is called the introduction. It should present the main idea to your readers. The primary task of this part is to capture the readers attention, for that reason you are supposed to present your opinions neatly and interestingly. Begin your writing with a general idea and smoothly narrow to the specific ones; state your thesis statements at the end of the introduction and place them only in one sentence. Dont give any wider information; youll give it in the body paragraphs; just make the reader interested in your paper. 2 The main body We will write a custom essay sample on How To Write A Persuasive Essay specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on How To Write A Persuasive Essay specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on How To Write A Persuasive Essay specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer The body of the essay usually consists of three paragraphs. Each of them goes with a specific subtopic stated in the beginning sentence; body paragraph should broaden the thesis statement presented in the introduction. You state your argument and prove them with evidence; it is extremely important to support the thesis. You must have a testimony for every mentioned opinion or else; you wouldnt sound effective. Mind your evidence; they should be understandable and reliable. To sound more cogent, create an imaginary opponent who gives you his arguments and reply him with your counterarguments. Each paragraph should offer some facts and information the reader needs to receive; be careful to put only one idea in the sentence. Fill the last sentence of your paragraphs with the conclusion and smooth transfer to the next one. Try to structure your ideas like a building, decide which of the arguments would be better represented in each part. 3 The conclusion The conclusion is the part where you summarize your ideas, by restating the thesis and show how your evidence proved your arguments. Be careful not only restate the thesis but present how you proved them; leave the reader making him think about the problem and stimulate him to take some actions. Finish by editing Dont forget to read your persuasive essay once more after having written it. Check your spelling, grammar, and fluency; think carefully whether you achieved your goals in writing. Make certain you sound absolutely persuasive to convince the reader to believe in your opinion. Check if you have enough transition words to connect your ideas. You may ask someone to look through your paper and give his notes, to help you improve the essay. Now you know how to write the persuasive essay.